There is a critical temperature for most biological samples that are cryopreserved. Known as the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg), this is widely accepted as being in the order of -130 to -135°C. The long term viability of frozen samples can be seriously compromised if stored above this temperature. Further, if they experience several transitions through the temperature, in either thermal direction additional deterioration may occur. It is important that the LN2 freezer maintain a lower temperature, even during fi lling and sample retrieval cycles. This is much more likely to be achieved if the freezer maintains -190°C than if the system is at or near the critical temperature at normal equilibrium. Chart-MVE’s approach to this problem was to improve the fundamental design of freezers used in vapor phase and to design and build a nitrogen vapor freezer which addresses the previousissues associated with storage in vapor.